Limits of Provable Security for Homomorphic Encryption

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Abstract

We show that public-key bit encryption schemes which support weak (i.e., compact) homomorphic evaluation of any sufficiently “sensitive” collection of functions cannot be proved message indistinguishable beyond AM ∩ coAM via general (adaptive) reductions, and beyond statistical zero-knowledge via reductions of constant query complexity. Examples of sensitive collections include parities, majorities, and the class consisting of all AND and OR functions.

We also give a method for converting a strong (i.e., distribution-preserving) homomorphic evaluator for essentially any boolean function (except the trivial ones, the NOT function, and the AND and OR functions) into a rerandomization algorithm: This is a procedure that converts a ciphertext into another ciphertext which is statistically close to being independent and identically distributed with the original one. Our transformation preserves negligible statistical error.