Energy- and Spectral-Efficient Wireless Cellular Networks

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The limited spectrum resources and the negative impacts of carbon dioxide emission resulted from inefficient use of wireless technologies have led to the development of green radio. Both the energy and spectral efficiencies should be considered together to meet green radio requirements. In this paper, we investigate the trade-off between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency through different approaches. Cognitive radio is a paradigm-shift technology which is used to increase both the energy and spectral efficiencies. Some efficient spectrum sensing techniques are considered in terms of energy and time consuming. Furthermore, it can be shown that the power control strategies can play a key role in avoiding interference between cognitive and primary users, and hence it can also enhance both the energy and spectral efficiencies. In addition to cognitive radio, a new infrastructure for deploying the cellular base stations which is a heterogeneous infrastructure of macro-, pico-, and femto-cells is proposed to overcome the energy and bandwidth constraints. Further details related to hardware-constraints in a green base station have also been covered.