Chapter

Green Communications and Networking

Volume 51 of the series Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering pp 171-185

Energy- and Spectral-Efficient Wireless Cellular Networks

  • Mustafa Ismael SalmanAffiliated withMiddle East, Technical UniversityDepartment of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang
  • , Chee Kyun NgAffiliated withMiddle East, Technical UniversityDepartment of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang
  • , Nor Kamariah NoordinAffiliated withMiddle East, Technical UniversityDepartment of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang

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Abstract

The limited spectrum resources and the negative impacts of carbon dioxide emission resulted from inefficient use of wireless technologies have led to the development of green radio. Both the energy and spectral efficiencies should be considered together to meet green radio requirements. In this paper, we investigate the trade-off between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency through different approaches. Cognitive radio is a paradigm-shift technology which is used to increase both the energy and spectral efficiencies. Some efficient spectrum sensing techniques are considered in terms of energy and time consuming. Furthermore, it can be shown that the power control strategies can play a key role in avoiding interference between cognitive and primary users, and hence it can also enhance both the energy and spectral efficiencies. In addition to cognitive radio, a new infrastructure for deploying the cellular base stations which is a heterogeneous infrastructure of macro-, pico-, and femto-cells is proposed to overcome the energy and bandwidth constraints. Further details related to hardware-constraints in a green base station have also been covered.

Keywords

Green radio energy efficiency spectral efficiency cognitive radio spectrum sensing transmit power control heterogeneous networks