Computational Intelligence in Intelligent Data Analysis

Volume 445 of the series Studies in Computational Intelligence pp 111-122

Safe and Interpretable Machine Learning: A Methodological Review

  • Clemens OtteAffiliated withCorporate Research and Technologies, Siemens AG Email author 

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When learning models from data, the interpretability of the resulting model is often mandatory. For example, safety-related applications for automation and control require that the correctness of the model must be ensured not only for the available data but for all possible input combinations. Thus, understanding what the model has learned and in particular how it will extrapolate to unseen data is a crucial concern. The paper discusses suitable learning methods for classification and regression. For classification problems, we review an approach based on an ensemble of nonlinear low-dimensional submodels, where each submodel is simple enough to be completely verified by domain experts. For regression problems, we review related approaches that try to achieve interpretability by using low-dimensional submodels (for instance, MARS and tree-growing methods). We compare them with symbolic regression, which is a different approach based on genetic algorithms. Finally, a novel approach is proposed for combining a symbolic regression model, which is shown to be easily interpretable, with a Gaussian Process. The combined model has an improved accuracy and provides error bounds in the sense that the deviation from the verified symbolic model is always kept below a defined limit.