Springer Series in Optical Sciences Volume 167, 2012, pp 269-316

Nanofabrication for Plasmonics

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Within the last 15 years, the scientific interest for individual or assembly of metallic nanostructures of well-defined size, geometry, and distribution has constantly increased. This paper aims at giving a comprehensive overview of the different nanofabrication techniques used in plasmonics including focused electron- and ion-beam lithography as well as the major associated challenges and issues. Alternative techniques, such as interference lithography and self-assembly techniques, are also discussed apart from material-related issues. The paper is divided into four parts emphasizing on metallic structures fabrication on planar surface, metallic structures fabrication on nonplanar surfaces, metallic structure surface functionalization and hybrid nanostructures fabrication. Finally, alternative techniques and forthcoming issues, such as material quality, nanostructuring on large scale, and plasmonic integration, are also addressed.