Node-Based Connection Semantics for Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages

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Declarative, Equation-Based Object-Oriented (EOO) modeling languages, like Modelica, support modeling of physical systems by composition of reusable component models. An important application area is modeling of cyber-physical systems. EOO languages typically feature a connection construct allowing component models to be assembled into systems much like physical components are. Different designs are possible. This paper introduces, formalizes, and validates an approach based on explicit nodes that expressly is designed to work for functional EOO languages supporting higher-order modeling. The paper also considers Modelica-style connections and explains why that design does not work for functional EOO languages, thus mapping out the design space.