Chapter

Quantum Interaction

Volume 7052 of the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science pp 116-127

Quantum Structure in Cognition: Why and How Concepts Are Entangled

  • Diederik AertsAffiliated withCenter Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • , Sandro SozzoAffiliated withCenter Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

One of us has recently elaborated a theory for modelling concepts that uses the state context property (SCoP) formalism, i.e. a generalization of the quantum formalism. This formalism incorporates context into the mathematical structure used to represent a concept, and thereby models how context influences the typicality of a single exemplar and the applicability of a single property of a concept, which provides a solution of the Pet-Fish problem and other difficulties occurring in concept theory. Then, a quantum model has been worked out which reproduces the membership weights of several exemplars of concepts and their combinations. We show in this paper that a further relevant effect appears in a natural way whenever two or more concepts combine, namely, entanglement. The presence of entanglement is explicitly revealed by considering a specific example with two concepts, constructing some Bell’s inequalities for this example, testing them in a real experiment with test subjects, and finally proving that Bell’s inequalities are violated in this case. We show that the intrinsic and unavoidable character of entanglement can be explained in terms of the weights of the exemplars of the combined concept with respect to the weights of the exemplars of the component concepts.

Keywords

Concept combination Bell’s inequalities entanglement quantum cognition