Soil Biology Volume 30, 2011, pp 369-388
Date: 02 Aug 2011

Role of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria and Fungi in Heavy Metal Detoxification

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Heavy metals are found in nature and are the main component of a variety of enzymes, transcription factors, and other proteins. Excessive level of heavy metal is considered as a pollutant agent. Soil-heavy metals cannot be degraded biologically; they can only be transformed to organic complexes. Remediation techniques have high costs and low efficiency, whereas an alternative technique, phytoremediation has low cost and is environmentally friendly. To stimulate phytoremediation, fast-growing plants with high metal uptake and rapid and high biomass are required. Alternatively, soil microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria are used in heavy metal detoxification. This chapter reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of fungi and rhizobacteria in heavy metal detoxification.