Concurrent Non-Malleable Zero Knowledge with Adaptive Inputs

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Abstract

Concurrent non-malleable zero-knowledge ( \(\mathcal{CN}\!\mathcal{MZK}\) ) considers the concurrent execution of zero-knowledge protocols in a setting where the attacker can simultaneously corrupt multiple provers and verifiers. We provide the first construction of a \(\mathcal{CN}\!\mathcal{MZK}\) protocol that, without any trusted set-up, remains secure even if the attacker may adaptively select the statements to receive proofs of; previous works only handle scenarios where the statements are fixed at the beginning of the execution, or chosen adaptively from a restricted set of statements.