Cryptanalysis of Multivariate and Odd-Characteristic HFE Variants
- Cite this paper as:
- Bettale L., Faugère JC., Perret L. (2011) Cryptanalysis of Multivariate and Odd-Characteristic HFE Variants. In: Catalano D., Fazio N., Gennaro R., Nicolosi A. (eds) Public Key Cryptography – PKC 2011. PKC 2011. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 6571. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
We investigate the security of a generalization of HFE (multivariate and odd-characteristic variants). First, we propose an improved version of the basic Kipnis-Shamir key recovery attack against HFE. Second, we generalize the Kipnis-Shamir attack to Multi-HFE. The attack reduces to solve a MinRank problem directly on the public key. This leads to an improvement of a factor corresponding to the square of the degree of the extension field. We used recent results on MinRank to show that our attack is polynomial in the degree of the extension field. It appears that multi-HFE is less secure than original HFE for equal-sized keys. Finally, adaptations of our attack overcome several variants (i.e. minus modifier and embedding). As a proof of concept, we have practically broken the most conservative parameters given by Chen, Chen, Ding, Werner and Yang in 9 days for 256 bits security. All in all, our results give a more precise picture on the (in)security of several variants of HFE proposed these last years.