Bossy or Wimpy: Expressing Social Dominance by Combining Gaze and Linguistic Behaviors

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This paper examines the interaction of verbal and nonverbal information for conveying social dominance in intelligent virtual agents (IVAs). We expect expressing social dominance to be useful in applications related to persuasion and motivation; here we simply test whether we can affect users’ perceptions of social dominance using procedurally generated conversational behavior. Our results replicate previous results showing that gaze behaviors affect dominance perceptions, as well as providing new results showing that, in our experiments, the linguistic expression of disagreeableness has a significant effect on dominance perceptions, but that extraversion does not.