Further Observations on Optimistic Fair Exchange Protocols in the Multi-user Setting

Abstract

Recent research has shown that the single-user security of optimistic fair exchange cannot guarantee the multi-user security. This paper investigates the conditions under which the security of optimistic fair exchange in the single-user setting is preserved in the multi-user setting. We first introduce and define a property called “Strong Resolution-Ambiguity”. Then we prove that in the certified-key model, an optimistic fair exchange protocol is secure in the multi-user setting if it is secure in the single-user setting and has the property of strong resolution-ambiguity. Finally we provide a new construction of optimistic fair exchange with strong resolution-ambiguity. The new protocol is setup-free, stand-alone and multi-user secure without random oracles.