Chapter

Ad Hoc Networks

Volume 28 of the series Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering pp 607-622

Building Intrusion Detection with a Wireless Sensor Network

  • Markus WälchliAffiliated withInstitute of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of Bern
  • , Torsten BraunAffiliated withInstitute of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of Bern

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Abstract

This paper addresses the detection and reporting of abnormal building access with a wireless sensor network. A common office room, offering space for two working persons, has been monitored with ten sensor nodes and a base station. The task of the system is to report suspicious office occupation such as office searching by thieves. On the other hand, normal office occupation should not throw alarms. In order to save energy for communication, the system provides all nodes with some adaptive short-term memory. Thus, a set of sensor activation patterns can be temporarily learned. The local memory is implemented as an Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) neural network. Unknown event patterns detected on sensor node level are reported to the base station, where the system-wide anomaly detection is performed. The anomaly detector is lightweight and completely self-learning. The system can be run autonomously or it could be used as a triggering system to turn on an additional high-resolution system on demand. Our building monitoring system has proven to work reliably in different evaluated scenarios. Communication costs of up to 90% could be saved compared to a threshold-based approach without local memory.