Building Intrusion Detection with a Wireless Sensor Network

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Abstract

This paper addresses the detection and reporting of abnormal building access with a wireless sensor network. A common office room, offering space for two working persons, has been monitored with ten sensor nodes and a base station. The task of the system is to report suspicious office occupation such as office searching by thieves. On the other hand, normal office occupation should not throw alarms. In order to save energy for communication, the system provides all nodes with some adaptive short-term memory. Thus, a set of sensor activation patterns can be temporarily learned. The local memory is implemented as an Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) neural network. Unknown event patterns detected on sensor node level are reported to the base station, where the system-wide anomaly detection is performed. The anomaly detector is lightweight and completely self-learning. The system can be run autonomously or it could be used as a triggering system to turn on an additional high-resolution system on demand. Our building monitoring system has proven to work reliably in different evaluated scenarios. Communication costs of up to 90% could be saved compared to a threshold-based approach without local memory.

The work presented in this paper was partly supported by the National Competence Center in Research on Mobile Information and Communication Systems (NCCR-MICS), a center supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant number 5005-67322.