Chapter

Comparative and Veterinary Pharmacology

Volume 199 of the series Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology pp 291-314

Date:

Veterinary Medicines and the Environment

  • Alistair B. A. BoxallAffiliated withEnvironment Department, University of York Email author 

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Abstract

Veterinary medicines may be emitted either directly or indirectly into the environment, following its use. As veterinary medicines are biologically active compounds, there is a concern that their occurrence in the environment may have an adverse impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This chapter reviews the major sources by which veterinary medicines enter the environment, the fate, behaviour and occurrence of veterinary medicines in the environment and the potential effects on environmental and human health. Finally, gaps in the current knowledge are identified and recommendations provided on priorities for future research.

Keywords

Veterinary medicines Environmental fate Ecotoxicity Environmental risk