Advances in Machine Learning II

Volume 263 of the series Studies in Computational Intelligence pp 121-142

Towards Multistrategic Statistical Relational Learning

  • Marenglen BibaAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, University of Bari
  • , Stefano FerilliAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, University of Bari
  • , Floriana EspositoAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, University of Bari

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Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) is a growing field in Machine Learning that aims at the integration of logic-based learning approaches with probabilistic graphical models. Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) are one of the state-of-the-art SRL models that combine first-order logic and Markov networks (MNs) by attaching weights to first-order formulas and viewing these as templates for features of MNs. Learning models in SRL consists in learning the structure (logical clauses in MLNs) and the parameters (weights for each clause in MLNs). Structure learning of MLNs is performed by maximizing a likelihood function (or a function thereof) over relational databases and MLNs have been successfully applied to problems in relational and uncertain domains. However, most complex domains are characterized by incomplete data. Until now SRL models have mostly used Expectation-Maximization (EM) for learning statistical parameters under missing values. Multistrategic learning in the relational setting has been a successful approach to dealing with complex problems where multiple inference mechanisms can help solve different subproblems. Abduction is an inference strategy that has been proven useful for completing missing values in observations. In this paper we propose two frameworks for integrating abduction in SRL models. The first tightly integrates logical abduction with structure and parameter learning of MLNs in a single step. During structure search guided by conditional likelihood, clause evaluation is performed by first trying to logically abduce missing values in the data and then by learning optimal pseudo-likelihood parameters using the completed data. The second approach integrates abduction with Structural EM of [17] by performing logical abductive inference in the E-step and then by trying to maximize parameters in the M-step.