Chapter

Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2008

pp 145-156

Date:

Enhanced Empirical Data for the Fundamental Diagram and the Flow Through Bottlenecks

  • Armin SeyfriedAffiliated withJülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Email author 
  • , Maik BoltesAffiliated withJülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH
  • , Jens KählerAffiliated withInstitute for Building Material Technology and Fire Safety Science, Bergische Universität Wuppertal
  • , Wolfram KlingschAffiliated withInstitute for Building Material Technology and Fire Safety Science, Bergische Universität Wuppertal
  • , Andrea PortzAffiliated withJülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH
  • , Tobias RupprechtAffiliated withInstitute for Building Material Technology and Fire Safety Science, Bergische Universität Wuppertal
  • , Andreas SchadschneiderAffiliated withInstitut für Theoretische Physik, Universität zu Köln
  • , Bernhard SteffenAffiliated withJülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH
  • , Andreas WinkensAffiliated withInstitute for Building Material Technology and Fire Safety Science, Bergische Universität Wuppertal

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Summary

In recent years, several approaches for modeling pedestrian dynamics have been proposed and applied e.g. for design of egress routes. However, so far not much attention has been paid to their quantitative validation. This unsatisfactory situation belongs amongst others on the uncertain and contradictory experimental data base. The fundamental diagram, i.e. the density-dependence of the flow or velocity, is probably the most important relation as it connects the basic parameter to describe the dynamic of crowds. But specifications in different handbooks as well as experimental measurements differ considerably. The same is true for the bottleneck flow. After a comprehensive review of the experimental data base we give an survey of a research project, including experiments with up to 250 persons performed under well controlled laboratory conditions. The trajectories of each person are measured in high precision to analyze the fundamental diagram and the flow through bottlenecks. The trajectories allow to study how the way of measurement influences the resulting relations. Surprisingly we found large deviation amongst the methods. These may be responsible for the deviation in the literature mentioned above. The results are of particular importance for the comparison of experimental data gained in different contexts and for the validation of models.