CDs Have Fingerprints Too

Abstract

We introduce a new technique for extracting unique fingerprints from identical CDs. The proposed technique takes advantage of manufacturing variability found in the length of the CD lands and pits. Although the variability measured is on the order of 20 nm, the technique does not require the use of microscopes or any advanced equipment. Instead, we show that the electrical signal produced by the photodetector inside the CD reader is sufficient to measure the desired variability. We investigate the new technique by analyzing data collected from 100 identical CDs and show how to extract a unique fingerprint for each CD. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for utilizing fuzzy extractors over the Lee metric without much change to the standard code offset construction. Finally, we identify specific parameters and a code construction to realize the proposed fuzzy extractor and convert the derived fingerprints into 128-bit cryptographic keys.