Imaging Sensor Noise as Digital X-Ray for Revealing Forgeries

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Abstract

In this paper, we describe a new forensic tool for revealing digitally altered images by detecting the presence of photo-response non-uniformity noise (PRNU) in small regions. This method assumes that either the camera that took the image is available to the analyst or at least some other non-tampered images taken by the camera are available. Forgery detection using the PRNU involves two steps – estimation of the PRNU from non-tampered images and its detection in individual image regions. From a simplified model of the sensor output, we design optimal PRNU estimators and detectors. Binary hypothesis testing is used to determine which regions are forged. The method is tested on forged images coming from a variety of digital cameras and with different JPEG quality factors. The approximate probability of falsely identifying a forged region in a non-forged image is estimated by running the algorithm on a large number of non-forged images.