Towards Subject-Specific Models of the Dynamic Heart for Image-Guided Mitral Valve Surgery

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Surgeons need a robust interventional system capable of providing reliable, real-time information regarding the position and orientation of the surgical targets and tools to compensate for the lack of direct vision and to enhance manipulation of intracardiac targets during minimally-invasive, off-pump cardiac interventions. In this paper, we describe a novel method for creating dynamic, pre-operative, subject-specific cardiac models containing the surgical targets and surrounding anatomy, and how they are used to augment the intra-operative virtual environment for guidance of valvular interventions. The accuracy of these pre-operative models was established by comparing the target registration error between the mitral valve annulus characterized in the pre-operative images and their equivalent structures manually extracted from 3D US data. On average, the mitral valve annulus was extracted with a 3.1 mm error across all cardiac phases. In addition, we also propose a method for registering the pre-operative models into the intra-operative virtual environment.