Genetic and Epigenetic Nature of Transgenerational Changes in Pathogen Exposed Plants

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Adverse environmental conditions named stresses are constantly shaping genomes of living organisms. Most of these external stimuli have a negative influence on growth, development, and reproduction (Arnholdt-Schmitt 2004; Madlung and Comai 2004). Avoidance represents the most common response to severe or long lasting environmental conditions. The organisms with a sedentary life style are unable to escape stress, and thus utilize mechanisms of tolerance and resistance. Plants integrate into the environment through the efficient use of adaptation mechanisms that depends on the constant exchange of signaling molecules (reviewed in Cronk 2001).