Magnetron Sputtering of ZnO Films

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Glow discharge sputtering is one of the oldest deposition techniques that utilizes an energy input to promote surface diffusion at the substrate and thus, to achieve dense and well-adhering coatings at low substrate temperatures. The term “sputtering” means the ejection of atoms from a usually solid target material due to the impact of highly energetic species. These highly energetic species are usually positive ions, which can either be accelerated in the cathode sheath of a plasma discharge or in an ion source.