Light Scattering Reviews 3

Part of the series Springer Praxis Books pp 279-327

Bi-directional reflectance measurements of closely packed natural and prepared particulate surfaces

  • Hao ZhangAffiliated withCooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University and NOAA/NESDIS/STAR
  • , Kenneth J. VossAffiliated withPhysics Department, University of Miami

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


One of the most general ways to quantify the surface reflectance of a medium is by use of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) (Hapke, 1993). The BRDF gives the reflectance of a surface as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry and is required in many scientific and engineering disciplines. For example, in satellite remote sensing, measurements taken from spaceborne sensors are affected significantly by sun-target-sensor geometry. Since the reflectances of most land surfaces such as soil, snow and vegetation are anisotropic, and atmospheric scattering is also anisotropic, the same surface viewed at different times of the day, or from different directions, may appear to have a different reflectance. To compare measurements carried out under different illumination and viewing conditions, the angular properties of the ground surface reflectance must be taken into account (Royer et al., 1985) in addition to the atmospheric effects (Gordon, 1997).