Canonical Transient Receptor Potential 5

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Abstract

Canonical transient receptor potential 5 TRPC5 (also TrpC5, trp-5 or trp5) is one of the seven mammalian TRPC proteins. Its known functional property is that of a mixed cationic plasma membrane channel with calcium permeability. It is active alone or as a heteromultimeric assembly with TRPC1; TRPC4 and TRPC3 may also be involved. Multiple activators of TRPC5 are emerging, including various G protein-coupled receptor agonists, lysophospholipids, lanthanide ions and, in some contexts, calcium store depletion. Intracellular calciumhas complex impact on TRPC5, including a permissive role for other activators, as well as inhibition at high concentrations. Protein kinase C is inhibitory and mediates desensitisation following receptor activation. Tonic TRPC5 activity is detected and may reflect the presence of constitutive activation signals. The channel has voltage dependence but the biological significance of this is unknown; it is partially due to intracellular magnesium blockade at aspartic acid residue 633. Protein partners include calmodulin, CaBP1, enkurin, Na+-H+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF) and stathmin. TRPC5 is included in local vesicular trafficking regulated by growth factors through phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3-kinase, Rac1 and PIP-5-kinase. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase suppresses TRPC5, possibly via an effect on trafficking. Biological roles of TRPC5 are emerging but more reports on this aspect are needed. One proposed role is as a mediator of calcium entry and excitation in smooth muscle, another as an inhibitor of neuronal growth cone extension. The latter is intriguing in view of the original cloning of the human TRPC5 gene from a region of the X chromosome linked to mental retardation. TRPC5 is a broadly expressed calcium channel with capability to act as an integrator of extracellular and intracellular signals at the level of calcium entry.