Modern Physics of Ferroelectrics: Essential Background

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Abstract

Principles of ferroelectricity and information about ferroelectric materials and their applications are reviewed. The characterization of ferroelectric behavior through measurement of electrical hysteresis is discussed in detail. The main families of ferroelectric oxides, including perovskite compounds and solid solutions, lithium niobate, layered oxides, magnetic ferroelectric oxides, and electronic ferroelectrics are presented and their crystal structures and polarizations given. The effects of pressure and epitaxial strain on perovskites are described. Recent advances in the understanding of ferroelectricity in thin films, superlattices and nanostructures are mentioned. Finally, an overview of applications of feroelectric materials, both established applications and those under development, is included.