Chapter

Elementary Processes in Organic Photovoltaics

Volume 272 of the series Advances in Polymer Science pp 1-24

Date:

In situ Studies of Morphology Formation in Solution-Processed Polymer–Fullerene Blends

  • Esther BarrenaAffiliated withInstituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB CSIC) Email author 
  • , Felix BussAffiliated withInstitute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • , Ana Perez-RodriguezAffiliated withInstituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB CSIC)
  • , Monamie SanyalAffiliated withMax Planck Institut für Metallforschung
  • , Benjamin Schmidt-HansbergAffiliated withInstitute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • , Michael F. G. KleinAffiliated withLight Technology Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • , Philip ScharferAffiliated withInstitute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • , Wilhelm SchabelAffiliated withInstitute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • , Uli LemmerAffiliated withLight Technology Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

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Abstract

Control of the blend nanomorphology in bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) is still a challenge that demands more fundamental knowledge of the mechanism of phase separation and crystallization during solvent drying. In this review we show that in situ studies using combined laser reflectometry and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering provide a fundamental understanding on how the nanomorphology develops dynamically during film drying. We identify influencing parameters for controlled film formation in order to obtain optimized solar cell performance. We review here our results on BHJs of poly(3-hexylthiophene)–[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly{[4,40-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno(3,2-b;20,30-d)silole]-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3 benzothidiazole)-4,7-diyl} with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester.

Keywords

Bulk heterojunction Crystallization Drying kinetics GIWAXS P3HT PCBM PSBTBT Real-time studies Solution processing