The Road to Universal Logic

Part of the series Studies in Universal Logic pp 263-295


From (Paraconsistent) Topos Logic to Universal (Topos) Logic

  • Luis Estrada-GonzálezAffiliated withInstituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Email author 


In this chapter, I describe how complement toposes, with their paraconsistent internal logic, lead to a more abstract theory of topos logic. Béziau’s work in Universal Logic – including his ideas on logical structures, axiomatic emptiness and on logical many-valuedness – is central in this shift and therefore it is with great pleasure that I wrote this chapter for the present commemorative volume.


Standard topos · Complement-topos · Bare topos · (Bare) internal logic

Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)

03A05 03B53 03G30 18B25