Neurodegenerative Disorders

pp 181-196


Parkinsonism Plus Syndromes

  • Fiona M. Molloy
  • , Daniel G. HealyAffiliated withDepartment of Neurosciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Medical School Email author 

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Parkinson’s plus syndrome is a term that refers to disorders of movement and cognition that are often confused with Parkinson’s disease. The three main disorders are progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multisystem atrophy (MSA), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). These syndromes are pathologically diverse encompassing a number of distinct proteinopathies but have in common clinical features of movement abnormality, cognitive decline, a more rapid clinical course than Parkinson’s disease, and a generally poor therapeutic response to levodopa. The diagnosis is largely clinical with some reliable radiological features. Therapy is largely in the realm of multidisciplinary symptomatic support but advances in molecular and biological understanding is leading to exciting therapeutic avenues.


Corticobasal degeneration Mid brain atrophy Mulitsystem atropy Parkinson’s plus Pontocerebellar atrophy Shy-Drager syndrome Supranuclear palsy