Chapter

Thyroid Cancer

pp 179-198

False-Positive Radioiodine Scans in Thyroid Cancer

  • Brahm ShapiroAffiliated withDivision of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center
  • , Vittoria RufiniAffiliated withInstutito di Medicina Nucleare, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
  • , Ayman JarwanAffiliated withDepartment of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan
  • , Onelio GeattiAffiliated withServizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore
  • , Kimberlee J. KearfottAffiliated withDepartment of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan
  • , Lorraine M. FigAffiliated withNuclear Medicine Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Health System
  • , Ian D. KirkwoodAffiliated withDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital
  • , John E. FreitasAffiliated withNuclear Medicine Services, Department of Radiology, St. Joseph Mercy HospitalUniversity of Michigan Medical School
  • , Milton D. GrossAffiliated withWashington Hospital CenterDivision of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical SchoolNuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Health Systems

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Abstract

The whole-body radioiodine scan remains an important component in the postoperative treatment of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Because normal thyroid tissue remnants and residual or metastatic foci of well-differentiated thyroid cancer have the unique ability to concentrate, organify, and store radioiodine, the wholebody scan provides a depiction of those tissues that can be ablated with therapeutic doses of radioiodine. Over time, it has become obvious that the whole-body scan may also reveal foci of radioiodine accumulation from a wide variety of other causes. This chapter provides an update of an article in the Seminars of Nuclear Medicine* in 2000 that detailed the pathophysiological classification of artifacts, anatomic and physiological variants, and nonthyroidal diseases that may give rise to false-positive whole body scans in postoperative patients with thyroid cancer.