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Novel Chemical Tools to Study Ion Channel Biology

Volume 869 of the series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology pp 101-117

Date:

Flipping the Photoswitch: Ion Channels Under Light Control

  • Catherine K. McKenzieAffiliated withInstitute of Science and Technology Austria
  • , Inmaculada Sanchez-RomeroAffiliated withInstitute of Science and Technology Austria
  • , Harald JanovjakAffiliated withInstitute of Science and Technology Austria Email author 

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Abstract

Nature has incorporated small photochromic molecules, colloquially termed ‘photoswitches’, in photoreceptor proteins to sense optical cues in phototaxis and vision. While Nature’s ability to employ light-responsive functionalities has long been recognized, it was not until recently that scientists designed, synthesized and applied synthetic photochromes to manipulate many of which open rapidly and locally in their native cell types, biological processes with the temporal and spatial resolution of light. Ion channels in particular have come to the forefront of proteins that can be put under the designer control of synthetic photochromes. Photochromic ion channel controllers are comprised of three classes, photochromic soluble ligands (PCLs), photochromic tethered ligands (PTLs) and photochromic crosslinkers (PXs), and in each class ion channel functionality is controlled through reversible changes in photochrome structure. By acting as light-dependent ion channel agonists, antagonist or modulators, photochromic controllers effectively converted a wide range of ion channels, including voltage-gated ion channels, ‘leak channels’, tri-, tetra- and pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and temperature-sensitive ion channels, into man-made photoreceptors. Control by photochromes can be reversible, unlike in the case of ‘caged’ compounds, and non-invasive with high spatial precision, unlike pharmacology and electrical manipulation. Here, we introduce design principles of emerging photochromic molecules that act on ion channels and discuss the impact that these molecules are beginning to have on ion channel biophysics and neuronal physiology.

Keywords

Optochemical genetics Optogenetics Photopharmacology Optical control Photochrome Azobenzene Tethered ligand