Cytochrome P450

pp 473-535

Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

  • F. Peter GuengerichAffiliated withDepartment of Biochemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

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In the past decade there has been considerable progress in the characterization of individual human P450 enzymes. These advances were initiated by early work on the purification of individual enzymes from human liver and other sources. The early work in the area was guided by a focus on the most abundant and easily purified enzymes.1–4It is now apparent, in retrospect, that these proteins were in the 2C and 3A families. Efforts were shifted to attempts to purify individual P450s on the basis of catalytic activities with the evidence that in some cases a single P450 could be identified in this way; e.g., the P450 now known as P450 2D6 was found to be under monogenic control. 5 The approach is technically demanding because of the need to do separations in the presence of detergents and then remove them before analysis of catalytic activity. Nevertheless, human P450s 1A1,6 1A2,7 2A6,8 2C8,9 2C9,9,10 2D67,11,12 2E1 13,14 3A4,15 3A5,16 4A11,17 and lanosterol 14α-demethylase18 were isolated in this general manner. Another approach that has been used, sometimes in a mode complementary to catalytic specificity, is purification on the basis of immunochemical similarity to animal P450s. 7,11,19,20