1971, pp 68-92

The Adaptability of Introduced Biological Control Agents

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The ecological circumstances necessary for successful establishment of an entomophagous insect in a new environment are complex. The climate must be suitable in its direct effects on development, survival, and reproduction of the new natural enemy; it must also be suitable in its indirect effects on life cycle synchrony between enemy and host1 (Flanders, 1940; Elton, 1958).