Chapter

Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM

pp 229-271

Parasitoids and Predators

  • Matthias Schöller
  • , Paul W. Flinn

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Abstract

The use of insect parasitoids and predators to control stored-product insect pests has many advantages over traditional chemical controls. These natural enemies leave no harmful chemical residues. Natural enemies released in a storage facility continue to reproduce as long as hosts are available and environmental conditions are suitable. Unlike chemicals that need to be applied to a wide area, natural enemies can be released at a single location and they will find and attack pests located deep inside crevices or within a grain mass. Parasitoids and predators that attack stored-product pests are typically very small, and have a short life cycle and a high reproductive capacity. They can easily be removed from bulk grain using normal cleaning procedures before milling. In many ways the stored-product environment is favorable for biological control. Environmental conditions are generally favorable for natural enemies, and storage structures prevent these beneficial insects from leaving. Several reviews have been published on the use of insect parasitoids and predators to control stored-product insect pests (Burkholder 1981, Arbogast 1984a, b; Haines 1984, Brower 1990a, 1991a; Nilakhe and Parker 1990, Burkholder and Faustini 1991, Brower et al. 1996, Schöller et al. 1997, Adler and Schöller 1998).