1994, pp 325-399

Predator—Planthopper Interactions

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Abstract

Parasitoids have been selected often over predators in classical biological control programs because they are generally more host-specific and possess life history traits such as high fecundity, high larval survival, high searching efficiency, short handling time, and low mutual interference, which are thought to be more conducive to pest suppression (see Waage and Hassell 1982; Greathead 1986; Waage 1990). Invertebrate predators, due to their presumed polyphagous feeding habit (Rothschild 1966; Waage 1990), generally lower reproductive potential (Murdoch et al. 1985), variable ability to effect a numerical response (Renault and Miller 1972), tendency toward cannibalism (Heong and Rubia 1990b), and Type II functional responses (Holling 1966; Nakamura 1977), have been considered less attractive candidates as control agents (Huffaker et al. 1977; Greathead 1986). Nevertheless, there is growing awareness and evidence for the importance of invertebrate predators in the biological control and population dynamics of herbivorous insects (Murdoch 1975; Ehler 1977, 1990; Ehler and Miller 1978; Luff 1983; Hanks and Denno 1993).