Chapter

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Breastfeeding

Volume 743 of the series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology pp 3-25

Date:

Breastfeeding and Transmission of HIV-1: Epidemiology and Global Magnitude

  • Mary Glenn FowlerAffiliated withDepartment of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutesOnsite Makerere University–Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration Email author 
  • , Athena P. KourtisAffiliated withDivision of Reproductive Health, NCCDPHP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • , Jim AizireAffiliated withMakerere University–Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration
  • , Carolyne Onyango-MakumbiAffiliated withMakerere University–Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration
  • , Marc BulterysAffiliated withDivision of Global HIV/AIDS (DGHA), Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)CDC Global AIDS ProgramUCLA School of Public Health

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Abstract

Over the past two decades, major strides have been made in HIV-1 research and prevention. Among these advances, some of the most remarkable and sustained achievements have been in reducing the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mothers to their infants. In resource-rich settings such as the USA and Europe, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 has successfully been reduced to less than 1–2% [1] with the goal of virtual elimination of new cases. This success in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 has been achieved by widespread implementation of effective PMTCT antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens, and obstetrical interventions as well as avoidance of breastfeeding through the use of infant formula.