Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology

pp 152-171

Confocal Microscopy of the Eye

  • Barry R. Masters
  • , Gordon S. Kino

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The ability to observe the microscopic world with our eye is limited. Early developments in microscopy involved improvements in lens design and construction (an understanding of the theory of aberrations) and new methods for generating contrast. The last 50 years included the developments of electron beam optics and the electron microscope, as well as major improvements in optical design. New developments in microscopic imaging systems during the 1980s included the following: scanning tunneling microscopes, acoustic microscopes, atomic force microscopes, confocal imaging systems, near-field imaging systems, video-enhanced microscopy, and digital image processors coupled to optical imaging systems.1–5