Photosynthesis, Water Relations and Thallus Structure of Stictaceae Lichens

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The net photosynthetic rate (NP) of any autotrophic plant can be affected by a variety of external and internal factors. Extensive work with higher plants would suggest photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) as a dominant factor, together with C02 concentration, temperature and diffusion resistance of the photosynthesising structure. Also, probably because of the strong interest in stomatal regulation, there has been considerable emphasis on leaf and canopy resistances. In recent years the adaptive significance of different photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4, CAM) has been extensively researched and, with this, water-use efficiency has become a central issue.