Stress and Reproduction: Reciprocal Relationships

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The sensitivity of reproductive function to the influence of environmental stressors in vertebrates has been clear since the late 1930’s, as have the stressing effects of reproductive activity itself.209,210 However, the agenda for the investigation of interactions between physiological stress and reproductive function did not emerge until after the significance of their mutual influences on population density came to light in the 1950’s. Instrumental was the early work of Christian42 in which activation of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis was associated with high population densities.