Chapter

Modern Microscopies

pp 59-67

Amplitude and Phase Contrast in X-Ray Microscopy

  • D. RudolphAffiliated withForschungseinrichtung Röntgenphysik, University of Göttingen
  • , G. SchmahlAffiliated withForschungseinrichtung Röntgenphysik, University of Göttingen
  • , B. NiemannAffiliated withForschungseinrichtung Röntgenphysik, University of Göttingen

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Abstract

When a material object is placed in the path of an electromagnetic wave, the latter undergoes a change in both its amplitude and its phase. In particular, calculations have been performed previously for two extremes(1) to obtain the contrast caused purely by the change in amplitude produced when an object is imaged by soft X rays (an amplitude object) or, alternatively, by the change in phase (a phase object) when imaged in a phase-contrast microscope with coherent illumination. These calculations show that phase contrast exceeded amplitude contrast. In fact, phase-contrast microradiography(2) and phase-contrast topography using x-ray interferometers(3) had already been suggested several years prior to the work reported here. To confirm these calculations, preliminary phase-contrast x-ray microscopy experiments were performed with the x-ray microscope at the BESSY electron storage ring.(4.5)