Anderberg, M. *Cluster analysis for applications*. New York: Academic Press, 1973.

Anderson, T. W., Das Gupta, S., and Styan, G. P. H. A *bibliography of multivariate statistical analysis*. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1972.

Arabie, P., and Carroll, J. D. MAPCLUS: A mathematical programming approach to fitting the ADCLUS model. *Psychometrika*,1980, *45*, 211–235.

Bailey, T. A., and Dubes, R. Cluster validity profiles. *Pattern Recognition* 1982, *15*, 61–83.

Bartko, J. J. On various intraclass correlation reliability coefficients. *Psychological Bulletin*, 1976, *83*, 762–765.

Bartko, J. J., Strauss, J. S., and Carpenter, W. S. An evaluation of taxometric techniques for psychiatric data. *Classification Society Bulletin*,1971, *2*, 2–28.

Bass, B. M. Iterative inverse factor analysis—A rapid method for clustering persons. *Psychometrika*,1957, *22*, 105–107.

Bayne, R., Beauchamp, J., Begovich, C., and Kane, V. Monte Carlo comparisons of selected clustering procedures. *Pattern Recognition*, 1980, *12*, 51–62.

Bellman, R. E. Kalaha, R., and Zadeh, L. Abstraction and pattern classification. *Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*,1966, *13*, 1–7.

Bezdek, J. C. Cluster validity with fuzzy sets. *Journal of Cybernetics*,1974, *3*, 57–73.

Bezdek, J. C. Mathematical models for taxonomy. *Proceedings of the &h International Conference on Numerical Taxonomy*,1975.

Boake, C. Recovery of simulated MMPI mixtures by seven methods of cluster analysis. Paper presented to annual meeting of American Psychological Association, Anaheim, Calif., 1983.

Bonacich, P., and Domhoff, G. W. Latent classes and group membership. *Social Networks*, 1981, *3*, 175–196.

Borgen, F. H., and Weiss, D. J. Cluster analysis and counseling research. *Journal of Counseling Psychotherapy*,1971, *18*, 583–591.

Burt, C. Correlations between persons. *British Journal of Psychology*,1937, *28*,167–185.

Carlson, K. A. Classes of adult offenders: A multivariate study.

*Journal of Abnormal Psychology*, 1972,

*79*, 84–93.

PubMedCarmichael, J. W., George, J. A., and Julius, R. S. Finding natural clusters. *Systematic Zoology*, 1968, *17*, 144–150.

Carroll, J. D., and Arabie, P. INDCLUS: An individual differences generalization of the ADCLUS model and the MARCLUS algorithm. *Psychometrika*, 1983, *48*, 157–169.

Carroll, R. M., and Field, J. A comparison of the classific°qon accuracy of profile similarity measures. *Multivariate Behavioral Research*, 1974, *9*, 373–380.

Cattell, R. B. A note on correlation clusters and cluster search methods. *Psychometrika*, 1944, 9, 169–184.

Cattell, R. B. r_{p} and other coefficients of pattern similarity. *Psychometrika*, 1949, *14*, 279–298.

Cattell, R. B. *Factor analysis*. New York: Harper, 1952.

Cattell, R. B. A universal index of psychological factors. *Psychologia*,1957, *1*,74–85.

Cattell, R. B. *The scientific analysis of personality*. Chicago: Aldine, 1965.

Cattell, R. B. *The scientific use of factor analysis*. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Cattell, R. B., Coulter, M. A., and Tsujioka, B. The taxonomic recognition of types and functional emergents. In R. B. Cattell (Ed.), *Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology*. Chicago, Rand McNally, 1966.

Clifford, H., and Stephenson, W. *An introduction to numerical taxonomy*. New York: Academic Press, 1975.

Cohen, J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. *Educational and Psychological Measurement*, 1960, *20*, 37–46.

Cole, A. J. *Numerical taxonomy*. New York: Academic Press, 1969.

Cormack, R. M. A review of classification. *Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series A)*, *134*,321–367.

Cornell, J. A. Experiments with mixtures. *Designs*, *models*,*and the analysis of mixture data*. New York: Wiley, 1981.

Cronbach, J. J., and Gleser, G. C. Assessing similarity between profiles.

*Psychological Bulletin*, 1953,

*50*, 456–473.

PubMedCzekanowski, J. Objectiv kriterien in der ethnologie. *Korrespondenzblatt der Deutschen Gesselschaft fur Anthropologie*,*Ethnologie*, *und Urgeschichte*, 1911, *47*, 1–5.

Davies, D. L., and Bouldin, D. W. A cluster separation measure. *IEEE Transactions in Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence*,1979, *PAMI-1*,224–227.

Delattre, M., and Hansen, P. Bicriterion cluster analysis. *IEEE Transactions in Pattern Analysis*, 1980, *2*, 277–291.

Driver, H. E., and Kroeber, A. L. Quantitative expression of cultural relationships. *University of California Publications in Archaeology and Ethnology*, 1932, *31*, 211–216.

Dubes, R., and Jain, A. K. Clustering methodologies in exploratory data analysis. *Advances in Computers*, 1980, *19*, 113–228.

Duda, R. O., and Hart, P. E. *Pattern classification and scene analysis*. New York: Wiley, 1973.

Duran, B. S., and Odell, P. L. *Cluster analysis: A survey*. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1974.

Edelbrock, C., and McLaughlin, B. Hierarchical cluster analysis using intraclass correlations: A mixture model study. *Multivariate Behavioral Research*,1980, *15*,299–318.

Edelbrock, C., and Reed, M. Inverse factor analysis: An evaluation using benchmark data sets. Unpublished, 1982.

Edwards, A. W. F., and Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. A method for cluster analysis.

*Biometrics*, 1965,

*21*, 362–375.

PubMedEveritt, B. S. *Cluster analysis*. London: Heinemann, 1974.

Everitt, B. S. Unresolved problems in cluster analysis. *Biometrics*, 1979, *35*, 169–181.

Everitt, B. S. *Cluster analysis* (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1980.

Everitt, B. S., Gourlay, A. J., and Kendell, R. E. An attempt at validation of traditional psychiatric syndromes by cluster analysis.

*British Journal of Psychiatry*,1971,

*119*,399–412.

PubMedFisher, L., and van Ness, J. W. Admissible clustering procedures. *Biometrika*, 1971, *58*, 91–104.

Fisher, R. A. The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems. *Annals of Eugenics*, 1936, 179–188.

Fisher, W. D. *Clustering and aggregation in economics*. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968.

Fleiss, J., Lawlor, W., Platman, S., and Fieve, R. On the use of inverted factor analysis for generating typologies. *Journal of Abnormal Psychology*,1971, *77*, 127–132.

Florek, K., Lukaszewica, J., Perkal, J., Steinhaus, H., and Zubrzycki, S. Sur la liason et la devision des points d’un ensemble fini. *Colloquia Mathmatica*,1951, *2*,282–285.

Friedman, H. P., and Rubin, J. On some criteria for grouping data. *Journal of the American Statistical Association*,1967, *62*,1159–1178.

Golden, R. R., and Meehl, P. E. Detection of the schizoid taxon with MMPI indicators.

*Journal of Abnormal Psychology*,1979,

*88*,217–233.

PubMedGolden, R. R., and Meehl, P. E. Detection of biological sex: An empirical test of cluster methods. *Multivariate Behavioral Research*,1981, *16*,475–496.

Goldstein, S. G., and Linden, J. D. A comparison of multivariate grouping techniques commonly used with profile *data. Multivariate Behavioral Research*,1969, *4*,103–114.

Gordon, A. D., and Henderson, J. T. An algorithm for Euclidean sum of squares classification. *Biometrics*, 1977, *33*, 355–362.

Cowda, K. C., and Krishna, G. Agglomerative clustering using the concept of mutual nearest neighborhood. *Pattern Recognition*,1978, *10*,105–112.

Gower, J. C. A comparison of some methods of cluster analysis.

*Biometrics*, 1967,

*23*, 623–637.

PubMedGower, J. C. Goodness-of-fit criteria for classification and other patterned structures. *Proceedings of the &h International Conference on Numerical Taxonomy*, 1975, pp. 38–62.

Gower, J. C., and Ross, G. J. S. Minimum spanning trees and single-linkage cluster analysis. *Applied Statistics*,1969, *18*,54–64.

Gridgeman, N. T. A comparison of two methods of analysis of mixtures of normal distributions. *Technometrics*,1970, *12*,823–833.

Gross, A. L. A Monte Carlo study of the accuracy of the hierarchical grouping procedure. *Multivariate Behavioral Research*,1972, *7*, 379–389.

Guertin, W. H. The search for recurring patterns among individual profiles. *Educational and Psychological Measurement*,1966, *26*,151–165.

Hamer, R., and Cunningham, J. Cluster analyzing profile data confounded with interrater differences: Comparison of profile association measures. *Applied Psychological Measurement*, 1981, *5*, 63–72.

Hansen, P., and Delattre, M. Complete-link cluster analysis by graph coloring. *Journal of the American Statistical Association*, 1978, *73*, 397–403.

Hartigan, J. A. Representation of similarity matrices by trees. *Journal of the American Statistical Association*,1967, *62*,1140–1158.

Hartigan, J. A. *Clustering algorithms*. New York: Wiley, 1975.

Hartigan, J. A. Distributional problems in clustering. In J. Van Ryzin (Ed.), *Classification and clustering*. New York: Academic Press, 1977.

Hartigan, J. A. Consistency of single linkage for high-density clusters. *Journal of the American Statistical Association*,1981, *76*, 388–394.

Helmstadter, G. C. An empirical comparison of methods for estimating profile similarity. *Educational and Psychological Measurement*, 1957, *17*, 71–82.

Holgerson, M. The limited value of the cophenetic correlation as a clustering criterion. *Pattern Recognition*,1978, *10*,287–295.

Horst, P. *Factor analysis of data matrices*. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965.

Hosmer, D. W. A comparison of interative maximum likelihood estimates of the parametrics of a mixture of two normal distributions under three different types of samples. *Biometrics*,1973, *29*,761–770.

Hubert, L. J. Some applications of graph theory to clustering. *Psychometrika*, 1974b, *39*, 283–309.

Hudson, H. C. (Ed.) *Classifying social data: New applications of analytic methods for social science research*. San Francisco: Jossey—Bass, 1982.

Jambu, M., and Lebeaux, M. O. *Cluster analysis and data analysis*. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1983.

Jardine, N., and Sibson, R. The construction of hierarchic and nonhierarchic classification. *Computer*
*Journal*, 1968, *11*, 117–184.

Jardine, N., and Sibson, R. *Mathematical taxonomy*. New York: Wiley, 1971.

Johnson, S. Hierarchical clustering schemes. *Psychometrika*, 1967, *38*, 241–254.

Krus, D. J. Logical basis of dimensionality. *Applied Psychological Measurement*, 1978, *2*, 321–329.

Kuiper, F., and Fisher, L. A Monte Carlo comparison of six clustering procedures. *Biometrics*,1975, *31*,777–783.

Lance, G., and Williams, W. A general theory of classificatory sorting strategies. *Computer Journal*, 1967, *9*,373–380.

Ling, R. F. A probability theory of cluster analysis. *Journal of the American Statistical Association*, 1973a, *68*,159–169.

Ling, R. F. The expected number of components in random linear graphs. *Annals of Probability*, 1973b, *1*, 876–881.

Lorr, M. (Ed.) *Explorations in typing psychotics*. Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1966.

Lorr, M. *Cluster analysis for social scientists*. San Francisco: Jossey—Bass, 1983.

McNaughton-Smith, P. *Some statistical and other numerical techniques for classifying individuals*. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1965.

McQuitty, L. L. Elementary linkage analysis for isolating orthogonal and oblique types and typal relevancies. *Educational and Psychological Measurement*, 1957, *17*, 207–22.

McQuitty, L. L. Capabilities and improvements in linkage analysis as a clustering method. *Educational and Psychological Measurements*,1964, *24*,441–456.

Mahalanobis, P. C. On the generalized distance in statistics. *Proceedings of the National Institute of Sciences of India*,1936, *2*,49–55.

Matthews, A. Standardization of measures prior to clustering. *Biometrics*, 1980, *35*, 892–897.

May, K. O. The growth and quality of the mathematical literature. *Isis*, 1969, *59*, 363–371.

Meehl, P. E. *Psychodiagnosis: Selected papers*. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1973.

Meehl, P. E. A funny thing happened to us on the way to latent entities. *Journal of Personality Assessment*,1979, *43*, 563–581.

Meehl, P. E., and Golden, R. R. Taxonmetric methods. In P. C. Kendal and J. N. Butcher (Eds.), *Handbook*
*of research methods in clinical psychology*. New York: Wiley, 1982.

Mezzich, J. E. Evaluating clustering methods for psychiatric diagnosis.

*Biological Psychiatry*, 1978,

*13*, 265–281.

PubMedMezzich, J. E. Comparing cluster analysis methods. In H. C. Hudson (Ed.), *Classifying social data: New applications of analytic methods for social science research*. San Frnacisco: Jossey—Bass, 1982.

Mezzich, J. E., and Solomon, H. *Taxonomy and behavioral science*. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

Milligan, G. W. An examination of the effect of six types of error perturbation of fifteen clustering algorithms. *Psychometrika*,1980, *45*,325–342.

Milligan, G. W. A review of Monte Carlo tests of cluster analysis. *Multivariate Behavioral Research*,1981, *16*,379–407.

Milligan, G. W., and Cooper, M. C. An examination of procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set. Unpublished report, 1983.

Mojena, R. Hierarchical grouping methods and stopping rules—An evaluation. *Computer Journal*, 1977, *20*, 359–363.

Nowakowska, M. Epidemical spread of scientific objects: An empirical approach to some problems of meta-science. *Theory and Decision*, 1973, *3*, 262–297.

Nunnally, J. C. The analysis of profile data.

*Psychological Bulletin*,1962,

*59*,311–319.

PubMedOverall, J. and Klett, C. *Applied multivariate analysis*. New York: McGraw–Hill, 1972.

Paykel, E. S. Classification of depressed patients: A cluster analysis derived grouping.

*British Journal of Psychiatry*, 1971,

*118*, 275–288.

PubMedRand, W. M. Objective criteria for the evaluation of clustering methods. *Journal of the American Statistical Association*,1971, *66*,846–850.

Rohlf, F. J. Single-link clustering algorithms. In P. R. Krishnaiah and L. N. Kanal (Eds.), *Handbook of Statistics*. Vol. 2. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1982.

Rucci, A. J., and Tweney, R. D. Analysis of variance—the “second discipline” of scientific psychology: A historical account. *Psychological Bulletin*, 1980, *87*,166–184.

Scoltock, J. A survey of the literature of cluster analysis. *Computer Journal*, 1982, *25*, 130–134.

Scolve, S. Population mixture models and clustering algorithms. *Communications in Statistical Theories and Methods*,1977, A6, 417–434.

Shepard, R. N., and Arabie, P. Additive clustering: Representation of similarities as combination of discrete overlapping properties. *Psychological Review*, 1979, *86*, 87–123.

Skinner, H. A. Differentiating the contribution of elevation, scatter, and shape in profile similarity. *Educational and Psychological Measurement*, 1978, *38*, 297–308.

Skinner, H. A. Dimensions and clusters: A hybrid approach to classification. *Applied Psychological Measurement*,1979, *3*,327–341.

Skinner, H. A., and Lei, H. Model profile analysis: A computer program for classification research. *Educational and Psychological Measurement*, 1980, *40*, 769–772.

Skinner, H. A., Jackson, D. N., and Hoffman, H. Alcoholic personality types: Identification and correlates.

*Journal of Abnormal Psychology*, 1974,

*83*, 658–666.

PubMedSneath, P. H. A. The application of computers to taxonomy.

*Journal of General Microbiology*, 1957,

*17*, 201–226.

PubMedSneath, P. H. A. A method for testing the distinctiveness of clusters: A test for the disjunction of two clusters in Euclidean space as measured by their overlap. *Mathematical Geology*, 1977, 9, 123–143.

Sneath, P., and Sokal, R. *Numerical taxonomy*. San Francisco: Freeman, 1973.

Sokal, R., and Michener, C. D. A statistical method for evaluating systematic relationships. *University of Kansas Scientific Bulletin*,1958, *38*, 1409–1438.

Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. The comparison of dendrograms by objective methods. *Taxon*,1962, *11*, 33–40.

Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. An experiment in taxonomic judgement. *Systematic Botany*, 1980, *5*, 341–365.

Sokal, R. R., and Sneath, P. *Principles of numerical taxonomy*. San Francisco: Freeman, 1963.

Spath, H. *Cluster analysis algorithms*. New York: Wiley, 1980.

Stephenson, W. Introduction of inverted factor analysis with some applications to studies in orexia. *Journal of Educational Psychology*,1936, *5*, 353–367.

Tryon, R. *Cluster analysis*. New York: McGraw–Hill, 1939.

Tryon, R. C. *Identification of social areas by cluster analysis*. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1955.

Tryon, R. C., and Bailey, D. E. *Cluster analysis*. New York: McGraw–Hill, 1970.

Tversky, A. Features of similarity. *Psychological Review*,1977, *84*, 327–352.

Van Ryzin, J. (Ed.) *Classification and clustering*. New York: Academic Press, 1977.

Ward, J. H. Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. *Journal of the American Statistical Association*,1963, *58*, 236–244.

Williams, W. T., Lance, G. N., Dale, M. B., and Clifford, H. T. Controversy concerning the criteria for taxometric strategies. *Computer Journal*, 1971, *14*, 162–165.

Wishart, D. Mode analysis: A generalization of nearest neighbor which reduces chaining effects. In A. Cole (Ed.), *Numerical taxonomy*. New York: Academic Press, pp. 282–311.

Wolfe, J. H. Pattern clustering by multivariate mixture analysis. *Multivariate Behavioral Research*, 1970, *5*, 329–350.

Wolfe, J. H. A Monte Carlo study of the sampling distribution of the likelihood ratio for mixtures of multinormal distributions. Naval Personnel and Training Research Laboratory Technical Bulletin STB 72–2, San Diego, Calif., 1971.

Wong, M. A., and Lane, T. A Rth nearest neighbor clustering procedure. Unpublished manuscript, 1981.

Woodbury, M. A., and Clive, J. Clinical pure types as a fuzzy partition. *Journal of Cybernetics*,1974, *4*, 111–121.

Yahil, A., and Brown, M. B. On separating clusters from background. *Technometrics*, 1976, *18*, 55–58.

Yau, S. S., and Chang, S. C. A direct method for cluster analysis. *Pattern Recognition*, 1975, *7*, 215–224.

Zadeh, L. A. Similarity relations and fuzzy orderings*. Information Sciences* 1971, *3*, 177–200.

Zahn, C. T. Graph-theoretic methods for detecting and describing Gestalt clusters. *IEEE Transactions in Computers*, 1971, *C-20*, 68–86.

Zubin, J. A technique for measuring likemindedness. *Journal of Abnormal Psychology*,1938, *33*, 508–516.