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This chapter will develop scenarios of how lake biodiversity and ecosystem function will be affected by future global changes (Fig. 13.1). As a guide to that goal, much of the chapter will be devoted to an examination of the responses of lake biodiversity to past and ongoing global changes. Related reviews have emphasized the response of freshwaters to changes in climate alone (Carpenter et al. 1992; Firth and Fisher 1992; Arnell et al. 1996; Cushing 1997). This chapter will examine responses of biodiversity in lakes to a broader range of ongoing global changes, including land-use changes and attendant irrigation, eutrophication, and chemical pollution; introduction of nonindigenous species (NIS); overexploitation of fisheries; increases of UV-B radiation; and climate change. Unlike terrestrial ecosystems, lakes are unlikely to respond directly to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration because most lakes are supersaturated with CO2 (Cole et al. 1994).