Impacts of Global Change on Arctic-Breeding Bird Populations and Migration

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Few birds breeding in the Arctic remain there for more than 3 months in the year. This complicates any assessment of how they might be affected by climatic or other environmental changes in the Arctic, because they are also subject to what happens elsewhere. This chapter is restricted to the likely effects of possible changes to bird populations either in the Arctic or in subarctic and north-temperate sites where Arctic-breeding migrants stop on migration.