Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Volume 151 of the series Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology pp 117-165

Factors Affecting Atrazine Fate in North Central U.S. Soils

  • W. C. KoskinenAffiliated withUSDA-Agricultural Research Service
  • , S. A. ClayAffiliated withDepartment of Plant Science, South Dakota State University

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Atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(l-methylethyl)-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) is a herbicide of the triazine family used for controlling broadleaf and some grassy weeds in corn and sorghum. Since its introduction in the late 1950s, atrazine has been a popular herbicide because it is relatively inexpensive and, in most cases, gives good season-long weed control. It can be applied pre-or postemergence and is often tank mixed with grass herbicides, such as alachlor (2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide), metolachlor(2-chloro-N-(2-2ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-l-methylethyl) acetamide), butylate (S-ethyl bis(2-methylpropyl)carbamothioate), or EPTC (S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate), or with other broadleaf herbicides, such as dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid), to obtain broad-spectrum weed control. Atrazine mixed with nicosulfuron {2-[[[[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]-N,N-dimethyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide} or bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydro-xybenzonitrile) is commonly used across the northern Corn Belt; when mixed with cyanazine {2-[[4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-methylpropanenitrile}, it is commonly used in total weed control programs in southern Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.