Torsion and Looping of the Cardiac Tube and Primitive Cardiac Segments. Anatomical Manifestations

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Abstract

Torsion of the cardiac tube takes place during the looping period of embryological development, i.e., between stage 9+HH of the straight tube heart (de la Cruz et al 1989, 1991) and stage 17HH, when septation begins (de la Cruz et al 1997). Septation will culminate with the formation of a four-chambered heart.