Cornerstones to Shape Modeling for the 21st Century: Introducing the AKA-Glucose Project

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For some reason, the start of a new century, as though magically demarcating history, seems to confer the right to reflect on progress as we embrace a ‘new’ period or ‘new’ phase of endeavor. Accordingly, we begin this paper by reviewing what computer-based mathematical modeling in biology (CMMB) has brought us thus far, as we begin the 21st century (or could we say, ‘the third millennium’,). We will decompose the stages of CMMB evolution in the last century into three generations, noting the hallmark accomplishments in each.