Bio-Farms for Nutraceuticals

Volume 698 of the series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology pp 52-67

Endogenous Antioxidants and Radical Scavengers

  • Angela Maria Rizzo
  • , Patrizia Berselli
  • , Stefania Zava
  • , Gigliola Montorfano
  • , Manuela Negroni
  • , Paola Corsetto
  • , Bruno BerraAffiliated withDepartment of Molecular Sciences Applied to Biosystems, DISMAB, University of Milan

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


All living organisms are constantly exposed to oxidant agents deriving from both endogenous and exogenous sources capable to modify biomolecules and induce damages. Free radicals generated by oxidative stress exert an important role in the development of tissue damage and aging. Reactive species (RS) derived from oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) pertain to free radicals family and are constituted by various forms of activated oxygen or nitrogen. RS are continuosly produced during normal physiological events but can be removed by antioxidant defence mechanism: the imbalance between RS and antioxidant defence mechanism leads to modifications in cellular membrane or intracellular molecules. In this chapter only endogenous antioxidant molecules will be critically discussed, such as Glutathione, Alpha-lipoic acid, Coenzyme Q, Ferritin, Uric acid, Bilirubin, Metallothioneine, L-carnitine and Melatonin.