Modeling Cumulative Sound Exposure Along a Seismic Line to Assess the Risk of Seismic Research Surveys on Marine Mammals in the Antarctic Treaty Area

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Based on the Protocol for the Protection of the Antarctic Environment established in 1991, all activities south of 6° S are subject to an environmental impact assessment (EIA). This also applies to seismic research surveys, which have come into public and regulatory bodies’ focus due to their potential impact on marine mammals.