Chapter

The Handbook of Neuropsychiatric Biomarkers, Endophenotypes and Genes

pp 3-12

Peripheral Biomarkers in Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

  • Christian HumpelAffiliated withLaboratory of Psychiatry and Exp. Alzheimer's Research, Department of General Psychiatry, Innsbruck Medical University
  • , Josef MarksteinerAffiliated withLaboratory of Psychiatry and Exp. Alzheimer's Research, Department of General Psychiatry, Innsbruck Medical University

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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease, and is the most prevalent type of dementia. Dementia is usually preceded by a stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), with a mean prevalence of about 16%. After Alzheimer's disease, the most common forms of dementia are vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia. Frontotemporal dementia is less common. To date, the most advanced biochemical biomarkers include cerebrospinal fluid levels (CSF) of beta-amyloid(1–42), total tau, and phospho-tau proteins. Decreased levels of beta-amyloid(1–42) and increased levels of tau and phospho-tau are the most reproducible chemical biomarkers for Alzheimer disease. However, laboratories for testing these biomarkers are not readily available, and they also require lumbal puncture. The development and validation of biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis and tracking of progression of dementia and MCI are increasingly important. This chapter reviews the use of CSF biomarkers and of putative blood-related markers.

Keywords

Cerebrospinal fluid blood plasma Alzheimer diagnosis mild cognitive impairment