Estimation of the Ammonia Critical Level for Epiphytic Lichens Based on Observations at Farm, Landscape and National Scales
Purchase on Springer.com
$29.95 / €24.95 / £19.95*
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
In past decades, a huge amount of information was collected on the sensitivity of lichens to atmospheric sulphur dioxide. As the concentrations of sulphur dioxide have decreased following emission control measures, much more attention is now focusing on the possibility of direct effects of ammonia. In the Netherlands, a change in lichen populations through the 1980s and 1990s was originally attributed to an increase in ammonia emissions, although subsequently it was found difficult to separate these changes from the effects of parallel decreases in sulphur dioxide emissions (van Dobben and Ter Braak 1998). However, several subsequent studies across Europe have shown that ammonia is having substantial and unambiguous effects on epiphytic lichen populations (van Herk 1999; Sutton et al. 2004a, b; Wolseley et al. 2004, 2006; Frati et al. 2007; Pinho et al. 2008, this volume).
Our field measurements in the UK have trialled a number of indices to summarize the response of lichens to excess nitrogen deposition and specifically ammonia (Sutton et al. 2004a, b; Leith et al. 2005; Wolseley et al. 2004, 2006). Of these, we have found the approach of distinguishing two functional species groups, ‘nitro-phytes’ and ‘acidophytes’, to be most successful. This approach was originally developed by van Herk (1999) and consists of establishing lists of the known species which prefer a high supply of reactive nitrogen, the nitrophytes, and the known species which avoid a high supply of reactive nitrogen, the acidophytes. The name for the latter group reflects the fact that, as gaseous ammonia is typically the driving variable, high nitrogen supply tends to increase bark pH, which is naturally acidic under clean conditions. The fact that ammonia tends to increase bark pH in the field indicates that the effect of NH3 as a base dominates over any nitrification on bark surfaces (which could potentially acidify the surface, cf. Sutton et al. 1993).
- Fournier N., Weston K.J., Dore A.J., Sutton M.A. (2005) Modelling the wet deposition of reduced nitrogen over the British Isles using a Lagrangian multi-layer atmospheric transport model. Q. J. Roy Meteor. Soc. 131, 703–722. CrossRef
- Frati L., Santoni S., Nicolardi V., Gaggi C., Brunialti G., Guttova A., Gaudino S., Pati A., Pirintsos S.A., Loppi S. (2007) Lichen biomonitoring of ammonia emission and nitrogen deposition around a pig stockfarm. Environ. Pollut. 146(2), 311–316. CrossRef
- Kermit T., Gauslaa Y. (2001) The vertical gradient of bark pH of twigs and macrolichens in a Picea abies canopy not affected by acid rain. Lichenologist 33, 353–359. CrossRef
- Leith I.D., van Dijk N., Pitcairn C.E.R., Wolseley P.A., Whitfield C.P., Sutton M.A. (2005) Biomonitoring methods for assessing the impacts of nitrogen pollution: refinement and testing, JNCC Report 386. www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3886
- NEGTAP (2001) National Expert Group on Transboundary Air Pollution. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London.
- Pitcairn C.E.R., Skiba U.M., Sutton M.A., Fowler D., Munro R., Kennedy V.K. (2002) Defining the spatial impacts of poultry farm ammonia emissions on species composition of adjacent woodland groundflora using Ellenberg indicators, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide and foliar nitrogen as marker variables. Environ. Pollut. 119, 9–21. CrossRef
- Sutton M.A., Pitcairn C.E.R., Fowler D. (1993) The exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and plant communities. Adv. Ecol. Res. 24, 301–393. CrossRef
- Sutton M.A., Tang Y.S., Dragosits U., Fournier N., Dore T., Smith R.I., Weston K.J., Fowler D. (2001) A spatial analysis of atmospheric ammonia and ammonium in the UK. Sci. World 1 (S2), 275–286.
- Sutton M.A., Leith I.D., Pitcairn C.E.R., van Dijk N., Tang Y.S., Sheppard L.J., Dragosits U., Fowler D., James P.W., Wolseley P.A. (2004a) Exposure of ecosystems to atmospheric ammonia in the UK and the development of practical bioindicator methods. In: Wolseley P.A., Lambley P.W. (eds.) Lichens in a changing pollution environment. English Nature workshop, pp 51–62. English Nature Research Reports, No 525 [ISSN 0967–876X].
- Sutton M.A., Pitcairn C.E.R., Whitifield C.P. (2004b) Bioindicator and biomonitoring methods for assessing the effects of atmospheric nitrogen on statutory nature conservation sites (Eds.) JNCC Report 356, 247 www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3236
- Theobald M.R., Dragosits U., Place C.J., Smith J.U., Sozanska M., Brown L., Scholefield D., Del prado A., Webb J., Whitehead P.G., Angus A., Hodge I.D., Fowler D., Sutton M.A. (2004) Modelling nitrogen fluxes at the landscape scale Water Air Soil Poll.: Focus 4(6), 135–142.
- van der Eerden L.J.M, Dueck T.A. Posthumus A.C., Tonneijck A.E.G. (1994) Assessment of critical levels for air pollutant effects on vegetation: some considerations and a case study on NH3 In: Ashmore M.R., Wilson R.B. (eds.) Critical Levels of Air Pollutants for Europe. Proceedings of the UNECE Workshop on Critical Levels, Egham, pp 55–63. Air Quality Division, Department of the Environment, London.
- van Dobben H.F., Ter Braak C.J.F. (1998) Effects of atmospheric NH3 on epiphytic lichens in the Netherlands: the pitfalls of biological monitoring. Atmos. Environ. 32 (3), 551–557. CrossRef
- van Herk C.M. (1999) Mapping of ammonia pollution with epiphytic lichens in the Netherlands. Lichenologist 31, 9–20. CrossRef
- Wolseley P.A., James P.W. (2002) Using lichens as biomonitors of ammonia concentrations in Norfolk and Devon. Br. Lichen Soc. Bull. 91, 1–5.
- Wolseley P.A., Pryor K.V. (1999) The potential of epiphytic twig communities on Quercus petraea in a Welsh woodland site (Tycanol) for evaluating environmental changes. Lichenologist 31, 41–61.
- Wolseley P.A., James P.W., Sutton M.A., Theobold M.R. (2004) Using lichen communities to assess changes in sites of known ammonia concentrations. In: Wolseley P.A., Lambley P.W. (eds.) Lichens in a Changing Pollution Environment. English Nature workshop. pp 89–98. English Nature Research Reports, No 525 [ISSN 0967–876X].
- Wolseley P.A., James P.W., Theobald M.R., Sutton M.A. (2006) Detecting changes in epiphytic lichen communities at sites affected by atmospheric ammonia from agricultural sources. Lichenologist 38(2), 161–176. CrossRef
- Estimation of the Ammonia Critical Level for Epiphytic Lichens Based on Observations at Farm, Landscape and National Scales
- Book Title
- Atmospheric Ammonia
- Book Subtitle
- Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts
- Book Part
- pp 71-86
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Springer Netherlands
- Copyright Holder
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 1. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, (CEH)
- 2. Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)
- Author Affiliations
- 3. Department of Botany, NHM London, Cromwell Rd, London, SW7 7BD, United Kingdom
- 4. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, United Kingdom
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.