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Materials Issues for Generation IV Systems

Part of the series NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics pp 393-424

Introduction to Interfaces and Diffusion

  • P. WynblattAffiliated withDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University

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This chapter covers selected fundamental topics in Materials Science, with the purpose of introducing certain concepts that will serve as a foundation for other chapters in this volume. The topics addressed include: interfacial Gibbsian thermodynamics, with special emphasis on adsorption (or interfacial segregation) phenomena; statistical thermodynamic treatments of interfacial segregation, with examples of the relationship between interfacial composition and thermodynamic properties of two-component materials, as well as the consequences of variations in interfacial composition on interfacial energy; anisotropy of interfacial energy and the effects of composition thereon; grain boundary structure and energetics; interfacial equilibrium in solid-vapor, solid-liquid and solid-solid systems; and finally a brief overview of diffusion in solid metals which introduces both the mathematical framework as well as atomistic aspects of diffusion mechanisms.

Keywords

Interfacial thermodynamics adsorption segregation interfacial energy and anisotropy grain boundaries interfacial vector equilibrium diffusion in metals