Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Content in Camel Milk and Shubat from Kazakhstan

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Abstract

In Kazakhstan, camel milk is mainly consumed after fermentation process. The fermented camel milk, named shubat, is generally home-made by the traditional process. The changes in mineral composition of camel milk during the fermentation process were rarely studied especially for heavy metals. The present study aimed to assess the change in heavy metals and trace-elements contents during the fermentation process.

Samples of milk and shubat were collected in eight farms of Southern Kazakhstan in order to determine copper, iron, manganese, zinc, arsenic and lead. In camel milk mean content of these heavy metals was respectively of 0.065 ± 0.04, 1.478 ± 0.53, 0.084 ± 0.03, 5.163 ± 2.17, <0.1 and 0.025 ± 0.02 ppm. In shubat, the mean content was 0.163 ± 0.164, 1.57 ± 0.46, 0.088 ± 0.02, 7.217 ± 2.55, and 0.007 ppm respectively.

Arsenic was detected in some samples of milk and shubat only. A relationship between heavy metals in raw milk and shubat at the farm level was observed.