Chapter

Coral Reefs of the USA

Volume 1 of the series Coral Reefs of the World pp 643-654

US Coral Reefs in the Line and Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Ocean: Status, Threats and Significance

  • James MaragosAffiliated withPacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • , Alan M. FriedlanderAffiliated withBiogeography Team & The Oceanic Institute
  • , Scott GodwinAffiliated withHawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii
  • , Craig MusburgerAffiliated withDepartment of Zoology, University of Hawaii
  • , Roy TsudaAffiliated withNatural Sciences, Bernice P. Bishop Museum
  • , Elizabeth FlintAffiliated withPacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • , Olga PantosAffiliated withCentre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland
  • , Paula AyotteAffiliated withMarine Sciences Department, University of Hawaii
  • , Enric SalaAffiliated withCenter for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
    • , Stuart SandinAffiliated withCenter for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
    • , Sarah McTeeAffiliated withDepartment of Zoology, University of Hawaii
    • , Daria SicilianoAffiliated withNova Southeastern UniversityPhysics Department, Naval Postgraduate School
    • , David OburaAffiliated withNova Southeastern UniversityCORDIO East Africa, Kenyatta Public Beach

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

This is the second of two chapters on the coral reefs of the five US Line and Phoenix Islands, consisting of Baker, Howland and Jarvis Islands, Kingman Reef, ; and Palmyra Atoll (Fig. 16.1). The previous chapter (Chapter 15, Maragos et al.) covers the history, geology, oceanography and biology, while this chapter covers the status, threats and significance of the five. All are low reef islets or atolls in the central Pacific Ocean administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as National Wildlife Refuges. These 5 Refuges are among 20 within the tropical Pacific and among 10 that protect coral reefs. Together they are geographically a part of the largest series of fully protected marine areas under unified management in the world.