US Coral Reefs in the Line and Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Ocean: Status, Threats and Significance

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This is the second of two chapters on the coral reefs of the five US Line and Phoenix Islands, consisting of Baker, Howland and Jarvis Islands, Kingman Reef, ; and Palmyra Atoll (Fig. 16.1). The previous chapter (Chapter 15, Maragos et al.) covers the history, geology, oceanography and biology, while this chapter covers the status, threats and significance of the five. All are low reef islets or atolls in the central Pacific Ocean administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as National Wildlife Refuges. These 5 Refuges are among 20 within the tropical Pacific and among 10 that protect coral reefs. Together they are geographically a part of the largest series of fully protected marine areas under unified management in the world.